Mathematics |

**Introduction**

For length *N* input sequence *x, *the DFT is a length N vector, *X*. `fft`

and `ifft`

implement the relationships

If *x(n)* is real, we can rewrite the above equation in terms of a summation of sine and cosine functions with real coefficients

**Finding an FFT**

y = 6.0000 11.4853 - 2.7574i -2.0000 -12.0000i -5.4853 +11.2426i 18.0000 -5.4853 -11.2426i -2.0000 +12.0000i 11.4853 + 2.7574i

Notice that although the sequence `x`

is real, `y`

is complex. The first component of the transformed data is the constant contribution and the fifth element corresponds to the Nyquist frequency. The last three values of `y`

correspond to negative frequencies and, for the real sequence `x`

, they are complex conjugates of three components in the first half of `y`

.

**Example: Using FFT to Calculate Sunspot Periodicity**

Suppose, we want to analyze the variations in sunspot activity over the last 300 years. You are probably aware that sunspot activity is cyclical, reaching a maximum about every 11 years. Let's confirm that.

Astronomers have tabulated a quantity called the Wolfer number for almost 300 years. This quantity measures both number and size of sunspots.

Load and plot the sunspot data.

load sunspot.dat year = sunspot(:,1); wolfer = sunspot(:,2); plot(year,wolfer) title('Sunspot Data')

Now take the FFT of the sunspot data.

The result of this transform is the complex vector, `Y`

. The magnitude of `Y`

squared is called the power and a plot of power versus frequency is a "periodogram." Remove the first component of `Y`

, which is simply the sum of the data, and plot the results.

N = length(Y); Y(1) = []; power = abs(Y(1:N/2)).^2; nyquist = 1/2; freq = (1:N/2)/(N/2)*nyquist; plot(freq,power), grid on xlabel('cycles/year') title('Periodogram')

The scale in cycles/year is somewhat inconvenient. Let's plot in years/cycle and estimate what one cycle is. For convenience, plot the power versus period (where `period = 1./freq`

) from 0 to 40 years/cycle.

period = 1./freq; plot(period,power), axis([0 40 0 2e7]), grid on ylabel('Power') xlabel('Period(Years/Cycle)')

In order to determine the cycle more precisely,

Function Summary | Magnitude and Phase of Transformed Data |

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