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Filter data with an infinite impulse response (IIR) or finite impulse response (FIR) filter



The filter function filters a data sequence using a digital filter which works for both real and complex inputs. The filter is a direct form II transposed implementation of the standard difference equation (see "Algorithm").

y = filter(b,a,X) filters the data in vector X with the filter described by numerator coefficient vector b and denominator coefficient vector a. If a(1) is not equal to 1, filter normalizes the filter coefficients by a(1). If a(1) equals 0, filter returns an error.

If X is a matrix, filter operates on the columns of X. If X is a multidimensional array, filter operates on the first nonsingleton dimension.

[y,zf] = filter(b,a,X) returns the final conditions, zf, of the filter delays. If X is a row or column vector, output zf is a column vector of max(length(a),length(b))-1. If X is a matrix, zf is an array of such vectors, one for each column of X, and similarly for multidimensional arrays.

[y,zf] = filter(b,a,X,zi) accepts initial conditions, zi, and returns the final conditions, zf, of the filter delays. Input zi is a vector of length max(length(a),length(b))-1, or an array with the leading dimension of size max(length(a),length(b))-1 and with remaining dimensions matching those of X.

y = filter(b,a,X,zi,dim) and [...] = filter(b,a,X,[],dim) operate across the dimension dim.


You can use filter to find a running average without using a for loop. This example finds the running average of a 16-element vector, using a window size of 5.


The filter function is implemented as a direct form II transposed structure,


where n-1 is the filter order, and which handles both FIR and IIR filters [1].

The operation of filter at sample is given by the time domain difference equations

The input-output description of this filtering operation in the -transform domain is a rational transfer function,

See Also


filtfilt, filtic in the Signal Processing Toolbox


[1]  Oppenheim, A. V. and R.W. Schafer. Discrete-Time Signal Processing, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1989, pp. 311-312.

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